PSYCHOLOGY Final Exam – The Nursing TermPaper

Question
Question 11. Which of these is true of brain development?Dendrite branching accelerates during infancyMyelination takes place during infancyThere is an increase in synaptic connections during childhoodAll of the above are true2 pointsQuestion 21. A(n) _____ is any agent that causes a birth defect.androgenteratogenproestrogenestrogen2 pointsQuestion 31. According to Piaget, assimilation occurs when individuals _____.adjust their schemas to new informationincorporate new information into existing schemasare deprived of parental warmth and sensitivityare insecurely attached to their caregivers2 pointsQuestion 41. Which of the following is the correct sequence of the stages of prenatal development?Conception, zygote, embryonic period, fetal periodConception, embryonic period, zygote, fetal periodConception, fetal period, embryonic period, zygoteConception, fetal period, zygote, embryonic period2 pointsQuestion 51. Which theory of aging has focused on the role of chronic stress in reducing immune system functioning?Erikson’s theory of socioemotional developmentFree-radical theoryCellular-clock theoryHormonal stress theory2 pointsQuestion 61. Which researcher tracked individuals who had experienced bereavement, and looked at their patterns of grief?George BonannoJames MarciaErnest BeckerElizabeth Kubler-Ross2 pointsQuestion 71. Four-month-old baby Oscar is a participant in a preferential looking experiment. Researchers show Oscar two photos, one of which is of his mother’s face, and the other which is of a female stranger’s face. The photos are presented repeatedly in differing locations, and the amount of time Oscar spends looking at the photos is recorded. What will researchers conclude if Oscar shows a reliable preference for his mother’s face over the stranger’s face?Oscar can discriminate his mother’s face from a stranger’s face.Oscar is afraid of strangers.Oscar likes strangers as much as his mothers.Oscar can’t see very well.2 pointsQuestion 81. Which of the following refers to a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence?Sensorimotor stagePreoperational stagePubertyMenopause2 pointsQuestion 91. Which of the following represents the correct chronological sequence of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?Sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operationsSensorimotor, concrete operations, preoperations, formal operationsPreoperations, concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotorConcrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor, preoperations2 pointsQuestion 101. Which of the following is true about the concrete operational stage of reasoning?Adolescents can conceive of hypothetical possibilities in this stage.This stage denotes ability of an adolescent to systematically deduce, or come to a conclusion about, the best path for solving the problem.A kind of abstract, logical reasoning occurs in this cognitive stage.One important skill at this stage of reasoning is the ability to classify or divide things into different sets or subsets and to consider their interrelations.2 pointsQuestion 111. Benjamin loves putting together puzzles. He has recently mastered putting together a 10-piece Sesame Street puzzle. His mother claps at his accomplishment but wants to continue challenging Benjamin just beyond his current abilities. The next time they play, she gives Benjamin a 15-piece puzzle and offers some guidance on how to sort the pieces out. According to Vygotsky, Benjamin’s mother provides _____ that allows Benjamin’s cognitive abilities to be built higher and higher.accommodatingassimilationscaffoldingconservation2 pointsQuestion 121. Juan is a child with low activity level and tends to withdraw from new situations. He is inflexible, and displays low mood intensity. Juan is said to have what type of temperament?EasyDifficultSlow-to-warm-upAversive2 pointsQuestion 131. Which of these is not an example of an ability that is present at birth?SuckingObject permanenceBlinkingSwallowing2 pointsQuestion 141. A(n)_____ is a mental framework for understanding what it means to be male or female in one’s culture.gender schemagender diversitygender biasgender orientation2 pointsQuestion 151. If children cannot grasp the concept of conservation, they are unable to _____.accommodate in later lifesee things from the point of view of another personrecognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shaperetain earlier schemas when confronted with new experiences2 pointsQuestion 161. Neuroleptic drugs _____.are antianxiety drugsreduce schizophrenic symptomseffectively block serotonin activity in the braincure schizophrenia2 pointsQuestion 171. A therapist who uses cognitive restructuring believes that _____ are the causes of abnormal behavior.parental relationshipsmaladaptive beliefschemical imbalanceschildhood experiences2 pointsQuestion 181. Which therapist is most closely associated with client-centered therapy?Heinz KohutAlbert BanduraSigmund FreudCarl Rogers2 pointsQuestion 191. _____ treat depression by inhibiting reabsorption of serotonin in the brain.TricylicsMonoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitorsSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)Benzodiazepines2 pointsQuestion 201. The therapeutic alliance is the relationship between the therapist and _____.the clientthe American Psychiatric Associationthe local governmentother professional therapists who practice in the same state2 pointsQuestion 211. John does not have much money, but requires the help of a mental health professional. He might best be served by contacting a _____.board-certified psychiatristself-help support grouphumanistic therapistcounseling psychologist2 pointsQuestion 221. Validation, reframing, structural change, and detriangulation are techniques commonly used in _____.psychoanalysiscognitive therapyfamily therapybehavioral therapy2 pointsQuestion 231. Lithium is commonly used to treat _____.panic attack disorderbipolar disorderschizophreniamajor depression2 pointsQuestion 241. Tranquilizers are _____ drugs.antianxietyantidepressantantipsychoticMAO inhibitor2 pointsQuestion 251. According to the psychoanalytic approach to psychotherapy, which of the following is an essential part of the job of a psychotherapist?Point out inconsistencies in the patient’s thoughts and behaviorsEncourage the patient to explore his or her potential for growthEncourage the client to assess his or her own problems through client-centered therapyInterpret the disguised revelations of the unconscious mind to the patient2 pointsQuestion 261. One potential side effect of neuroleptic drugs is _____, a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary random movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and mouth, as well as extensive twitching of the neck, arms, and legs.insomniaschizophreniatardive dyskinesiatransference2 pointsQuestion 271. _____ is very directive, persuasive, and confrontational. In contrast, _____ involves more of an open-ended dialogue between the therapist and the individual.Beck’s cognitive therapy / rational-emotive behavior therapyRational-emotive behavior therapy / Beck’s cognitive therapyClient-centered therapy / behavior therapyIntegrative therapy / psychodynamic therapy2 pointsQuestion 281. Which form of treatment, developed by Moniz and used widely by Freeman, involves severing neural fibers connecting parts of the brain?Prefrontal lobotomyElectroconvulsive therapyAntipsychotic disengagementThalamectomy2 pointsQuestion 291. A test taker of the _____ is asked to tell a story about each of the pictures, including events leading up to the situation described, the characters’ thoughts and feelings, and the way the situation turns out.Rorschach testThematic Apperception Testempirically keyed testMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory2 pointsQuestion 301. Gladys is a therapist who is constantly reminding her clients that people have a natural capacity for personal growth and positive qualities. Gladys likely endorses the _____ of personality.psychodynamic perspectivehumanistic perspectivelearning perspectivetrait perspective2 pointsQuestion 311. Trait theories of personality _____.state that situational factors override personal characteristicsfocus on the role of the unconscioustake a more optimistic view of human nature than humanistic psychologists doexamine personal characteristics that are stable across situations2 pointsQuestion 321. Which of the following neurotransmitters is associated with extraversion?DopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineGABA2 pointsQuestion 331. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was created by _____.Sigmund FreudKaren HorneyAlfred AdlerHenry Murray2 pointsQuestion 341. Adler’s view that people are motivated by purposes and goals and that perfection, not pleasure, is thus the key motivator in human life is known as _____.individual psychologyhumanistic theorytrait theorysocial cognitive theory2 pointsQuestion 351. A(n) _____ is a type of self-report test that is created by first identifying two groups that areknown to be different.thematic apperception testempirically keyed testRorschach inkblot testpersonology inventory2 pointsQuestion 361. “Personology” refers to _____.an old, outdated term for personality psychologythe study of the whole personthe study of how individuals operate within groupsthe study of healthy, well-adjusted individuals2 pointsQuestion 371. Which of the following perspectives emphasizes that personality is primarily unconscious?Social cognitive perspectivesPsychodynamic perspectivesHumanistic perspectivesPersonological and life story perspectives2 pointsQuestion 381. _____ are enduring characteristics of our personality. _____ are briefer or more temporary experiences.States / TraitsTraits / StatesConditions of worth / ArchetypesArchetypes / Conditions of worth2 pointsQuestion 391. According to Rogers, we are all born with a need for_____, or a need to be liked, loved, and accepted by those around us.unconditional positive regardconditions of worththe collective unconsciouscatharsis2 pointsQuestion 401. Alex is shy and keeps to himself most of the time. Alex would score low on what trait?OpennessExtraversionAgreeablenessNeuroticism2 pointsQuestion 411. According to Bandura’s concept of _____ determinism, the person, the person’s behavior, and the environment all influence one another.reciprocalcausalhumanisticpsychodynamic2 pointsQuestion 421. What happened within the Stanford Prison Study?The experiment ran for the full two weeks for which it was scheduledThe experiment was cut off after 6 days because the prisoners and guards didn’t care about their rolesThe experiment was cut off after six days because of concerns for participant safetyThe experiment was cut off after guards administered 450 volt shocks to prisoners2 pointsQuestion 431. According to attribution theory, attributions vary along which of the following dimensions?Internal/external causesKnown/unknown causesRegular/irregular causesConsistent/inconsistent causes2 pointsQuestion 441. When thinking about a situation, the observer is more likely to think about ______ factors, while the actor is more likely to view it in terms of ______ factors.Personality / situationalSituational / personalityExternal / situationalInternal / personality2 pointsQuestion 451. The _____ is the overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way we do.fundamental attribution errorself-serving biasstereotype threatfalse consensus effect2 pointsQuestion 461. The effects of others on our behavior can take the form of _____, imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas.egoismaltruismsocial contagionsocial loafing2 pointsQuestion 471. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobsen conducted a study in 1968. The researchers told grade-school teachers that five students were likely to be “late bloomers” – that these students had high levels of ability that would likely emerge over time. In reality, the students had been randomly selected by the researchers. Nonetheless, a year later, the researchers found that teachers’ expectations for the “late bloomers” were reflected in student performance – the academic performance of the “late bloomers” was beyond that of other students. The results from this study demonstrate which of the following concepts?Cognitive dissonance theoryThe butterfly effectThe self-fulfilling prophecyThe self-serving bias20 pointsQuestion 481. You watch as another student stumbles and drops her books in the hall. According to the fundamental attribution error, how would you explain the student’s behavior?She must have tripped over something.She is a clumsy person.She couldn’t help it; there were too many books to carry.She was trying to get out of someone else’s way.2 pointsQuestion 491. When people try to convince Alan to stop smoking, he replies, “It’s not dangerous, my Uncle Bob smoked all his life and lived until he was 93.” This statement, which is an example of self-justification, illustrates Alan’s attempt to reduce _____.stereotype threatcognitive dissonancethe self-serving biasthe fundamental attribution error2 pointsQuestion 501. Central route persuasion _____.involves the use of non-message factors, such as the source’s credibility and attractivenessinvolves engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound, logical argumentinvolves emotional appealsinvolves altruism2 pointsQuestion 511. _____ refers to the tendency to take credit for one’s own successes and to deny responsibility for one’s own failures.Positive illusionLearned helplessnessSelf-serving biasStereotyping2 pointsQuestion 521. Social loafing refers to the _____.tendency for people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alonetendency for people to exert more effort when working in groups than when working alonetendency to spend more time being productive when in the company of one’s peerssocial norm that obligates the general public to help those who may not be completely able to help themselves (e.g., children and the elderly)2 pointsQuestion 531. Which is an example of the peripheral route in persuasion?Sharing data on the issueProviding facts on the issueAppealing to the emotions of the individualUsing logic and reason2 pointsQuestion 541. In which type of culture is conformity stronger?IndividualisticCollectivisticCapitalisticNativistic2 pointsQuestion 551. Chad regularly experiences motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectations and thoughts. It is likely that Chad suffers from a(n) _____.mood disorderanxiety disorderpersonality disorderdissociative disorder2 pointsQuestion 561. _____ is a mood disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state.Major depressive disorderDysthymic disorderBipolar disorderGeneralized anxiety disorder2 pointsQuestion 571. Individuals with bulimia nervosa tend to have _____ of perfectionism and _____ of self-efficacy.high levels / high levelshigh levels / low levelslow levels / high levelslow levels / low levels2 pointsQuestion 581. In the film A Beautiful Mind, John Nash hears and sees people who are not actually there. These sensations are examples of _____.hallucinationsdelusionsmiragescatatonia2 pointsQuestion 591. In 1973 Rosenhan conducted a study in which eight healthy individuals were committed to a psychiatric hospital. What did the results of this study demonstrate?College students are very susceptible to mental health issues.Doctors are always correct in their diagnosis of Schizophrenia.Once a person has been labeled with a psychological disorder, that label affects how others perceive everything else he or she does.If you are treated for Schizophrenia at an early age, you are likely to recover fully.2 pointsQuestion 601. Anne, a mother of two young children, developed amnesia, traveled across the country, and assumed a new identity as an accountant. When her husband and children tracked her down several months later, she had no recollection of her earlier life. Anne would likely be diagnosed with _____.borderline personality disorderantisocial personality disordermulti-personality disorderdissociative fugue2 pointsQuestion 611. Which of these reflects a change included in the newest (fifth) edition of the DSM?The addition of Asperger’s SyndromeThe new edition does not allow a diagnosis of major depression for those suffering grief over the death of a loved oneThe addition of Disruptive Mood Regulation DisorderSome of the diagnostic criteria for Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder have been made more strict2 pointsQuestion 621. Individuals who suffer from anorexia nervosa weigh less than _____ of what is considered normal for age and height and refuse to maintain weight at a healthy level.65 percent70 percent85 percent90 percent2 pointsQuestion 631. Which of the following was formerly called multiple personality disorder?Dissociative amnesiaDissociative identity disorderDissociative fugueSchizophrenia2 pointsQuestion 641. _____ is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in various contexts.SchizophreniaDissociative identity disorderAntisocial personality disorderBorderline personality disorder2 pointsQuestion 651. Which of these is the primary tool used in the United States for the classification of mental disorders?Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersInternational Classification of Diseases and Related ProblemsDisorder Selection ManualSymptoms and Classification of Disorders (5)2 pointsQuestion 661. The _____ of Schizophrenia are marked by a distortion or an excess of normal function, whereas _____ reflect social withdrawal, behavioral deficits, and the loss or decrease of normal functions.positive symptoms / negative symptomsnegative symptoms / positive symptomsphysical symptoms / psychic symptomspsychological symptoms / physical symptoms2 pointsQuestion 671. A fear becomes a phobia when _____.a doctor diagnoses it as suchan individual will go to any length to avoid the object of the feara person can specifically identify what they are afraid ofa person cannot identify the source of their nervous feelings2 pointsQuestion 681. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, performance is best under conditions of _____ arousal.nolowmoderatehigh2 pointsQuestion 691. According to self-determination theory, competence motivation involves _____.drive-reductionself-efficacy and masteryenvironmental stimulimaintaining optimal arousal2 pointsQuestion 701. The _____ of an emotion refers to whether it feels pleasant or unpleasant. The _____ of an emotion is the degree to which the emotion is reflected in an individual’s being active, engaged, or excited versus more passive, relatively disengaged, or calm.arousal level / valencevalence / arousal levelmanifestation / valencevalence / manifestation2 pointsQuestion 711. Soccer players are expected to congratulate and shake hands with the opposing team, even when their team loses the game. This is an example of _____.a display rulea set pointthe two-factor theory of emotionthe Yerkes-Dodson law2 pointsQuestion 721. Adding external rewards to a situation in which the person is already intrinsically motivated to perform usually results in _____.neutral intrinsic motivationmaximized extrinsic motivationreduced intrinsic motivationreduced extrinsic motivation2 pointsQuestion 731. The highest and most elusive of Maslow’s needs is _____.esteemself-actualizationbelongingnesscompetence2 pointsQuestion 741. The _____ calms the body.sympathetic nervous systemnon-adrenergic neuronsparasympathetic nervous systemnon-cholinergic neurons2 pointsQuestion 751. You just ran a marathon in very hot weather and perspired heavily. According to drive reduction theory, your body will have a(n) _____ for water, which will produce a(n) _____ for water, which will lead to a(n) _____ to get water.instinct; motivation; needinstinct; motivation; driveneed; motivation; driveneed; drive; motivation2 pointsSave and Submit

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