For the following research paper assignment, you have been asked to perform an evaluation of employee exposures at a small automobile parts manufacturing facility.

For the following research paper assignment, you have been asked to perform an evaluation of employee exposures at a small automobile parts manufacturing facility. The manufacturing processes include two metal presses, two machining stations, three welding stations, a small paint booth, and a shipping/receiving area. There are two employees working at each press, one person working at each machining station, one person working at each welding station, two people working in the paint booth, and four employees working in the shipping/receiving area.
One of the presses is a 2,000-ton press, and the other press is a 200-ton press. The 2,000-ton press is the greatest noise source for the facility. The machining area uses a metal working fluid. The safety data sheet (SDS) for the metal working fluid is attached here. All welding is performed on stainless steel. The painting booth uses a powder coating operation, but the employees use xylene and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) to clean the parts prior to the powder coating operation. At the end of the shift, one of the employees uses 1,3 butadiene to clean the nozzles for the paint booth. The facility uses two electric forklifts to move materials between the production area and the storage warehouse and between the warehouse and the shipping area. All employees work an 8-hour shift.
Part 1:
Using the information on anticipation and control we studied in the textbook, identify the hazards that are present in the facility. In your discussion, explain why you chose the hazards, and describe whether you believe the hazards to be actual hazards or potential hazards (which require further evaluation). Describe the specific location(s) at the facility where the hazards are located, and determine how many employees are potentially at risk in those areas.
Your response for Part 1 should be at least one page in length.
Part 2:
Using the information on evaluation that we studied in the textbook, summarize how you would measure the personal exposures to the hazards that you identified in Part 1. Use the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) website (https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html) or the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) website (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-154/default.html) to select the specific sampling and analytical method that would work best to evaluate any chemical hazards you identified. Provide a summary of the sampling media you would use, include the sampling flow rate, discuss how long you would sample, and explain how you would calibrate the sampling train. Include a discussion about why you selected the specific sampling and analytical method.
Your response to Part 2 should be at least one page in length.Part 3:Access the attached sampling results here. For each set of results, perform the following actions:
Calculate the 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) exposure.Compare the results to the appropriate OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL). Determine which results exceed an established OSHA PEL.
Write a one-page summary of the sampling results; document the exposures that exceeded an OSHA PEL, and identify those areas that you believe will require the application of controls to reduce risk. Include your calculations, include a list of the OSHA PELs you compared the results to, and explain how you decided that an exposure exceeded an OSHA PEL.
Part 4:
Using OSHA’s hierarchy of controls, recommend the control methods that you believe would be the most effective for reducing the risks associated with the exposures that exceeded the OSHA PEL above. Explain how you would implement the controls and how you would evaluate the effectiveness of the controls. Also, discuss any interim control methods you would recommend for the facility.
This section should be at least one page in length.
Include a reference page and in-text citations for all sources you used in this project, including your textbook, using proper APA format.
Safety Data Sheet
SECTION 1 PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION
Bright-Cut Metalworking Fluid AH, AM, NM
Product Use: Metal Working FluidProduct Number(s): 233944, 233945, 233946Company IdentificationAAA Products Companya division of AAA U.S.A. Inc.6001 Harvest Rd.Anycity, CA 90000United States of America
Transportation Emergency Response
CHEMTREC: (800) 555-9300 or (703) 555-3887Health EmergencyAAA Emergency Information Center: Located in the USA. International collect calls accepted. (800)555-0623 or (510) 555-0623Product Informationemail : msds@aaa.comProduct Information: 1 (800) 555-3835, LUBET@aaa.com
SECTION 2 HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
CLASSIFICATION: Not classified as hazardous according to 29 CFR 1910.1200 (2012).
HAZARDS NOT OTHERWISE CLASSIFIED: Not ApplicableSECTION 3 COMPOSITION/ INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
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COMPONENTS
CAS NUMBER
AMOUNT
Highly refined mineral oil (C15 – C50)
Mixture
70 – 99 %weight
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SECTION 4 FIRST AID MEASURES
Description of first aid measuresEye: No specific first aid measures are required. As a precaution, remove contact lenses, if worn, and flush eyes with water.Skin: No specific first aid measures are required. As a precaution, remove clothing and shoes if contaminated. To remove the material from skin, use soap and water. Discard contaminated clothing and shoes or thoroughly clean before reuse.Ingestion: No specific first aid measures are required. Do not induce vomiting. As a precaution, get medical advice.Inhalation: No specific first aid measures are required. If exposed to excessive levels of material in the air, move the exposed person to fresh air. Get medical attention if coughing or respiratory discomfort occurs.
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayedIMMEDIATE HEALTH EFFECTSEye: Not expected to cause prolonged or significant eye irritation.Skin: Contact with the skin is not expected to cause prolonged or significant irritation. Contact with the skin is not expected to cause an allergic skin response. Not expected to be harmful to internal organs if absorbed through the skin.
Ingestion: Not expected to be harmful if swallowed.Inhalation: Not expected to be harmful if inhaled. Contains a petroleum-based mineral oil. May cause respiratory irritation or other pulmonary effects following prolonged or repeated inhalation of oil mist at airborne levels above the recommended mineral oil mist exposure limit. Symptoms of respiratory irritation may include coughing and difficulty breathing.
DELAYED OR OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS: Not classifiedIndication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed Not Applicable
SECTION 5 FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: Use water fog, foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide (CO2) to extinguish flames.
PROTECTION OF FIRE FIGHTERS:Fire Fighting Instructions: This material will burn although it is not easily ignited. See Section 7 for proper handling and storage. For fires involving this material, do not enter any enclosed or confined fire space without proper protective equipment, including self-contained breathing apparatus.Combustion Products: Highly dependent on combustion conditions. A complex mixture of airborne solids, liquids, and gases including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and unidentified organic compounds will be evolved when this material undergoes combustion. Combustion may form oxides of: Sulfur.
SECTION 6 ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
Protective Measures: Eliminate all sources of ignition in vicinity of spilled material.Spill Management: Stop the source of the release if you can do it without risk. Contain release to prevent further contamination of soil, surface water or groundwater. Clean up spill as soon as possible, observing
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precautions in Exposure Controls/Personal Protection. Use appropriate techniques such as applying non-combustible absorbent materials or pumping. Where feasible and appropriate, remove contaminated soil. Place contaminated materials in disposable containers and dispose of in a manner consistent with applicable regulations.Reporting: Report spills to local authorities and/or the U.S. Coast Guard’s National Response Center at
(800) 555-8802 as appropriate or required.SECTION 7 HANDLING AND STORAGE
General Handling Information: Avoid contaminating soil or releasing this material into sewage and drainage systems and bodies of water.Precautionary Measures: Do not breathe oil mist at concentrations above the recommended mineral oil mist exposure limit.
Static Hazard: Electrostatic charge may accumulate and create a hazardous condition when handling this material. To minimize this hazard, bonding and grounding may be necessary but may not, by themselves, be sufficient. Review all operations which have the potential of generating and accumulating an electrostatic charge and/or a flammable atmosphere (including tank and container filling, splash filling, tank cleaning, sampling, gauging, switch loading, filtering, mixing, agitation, and vacuum truck operations) and use appropriate mitigating procedures.
Container Warnings: Container is not designed to contain pressure. Do not use pressure to empty container or it may rupture with explosive force. Empty containers retain product residue (solid, liquid, and/or vapor) and can be dangerous. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose such containers to heat, flame, sparks, static electricity, or other sources of ignition. They may explode and cause injury or death. Empty containers should be completely drained, properly closed, and promptly returned to a drum reconditioner or disposed of properly.
SECTION 8 EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Consider the potential hazards of this material (see Section 3), applicable exposure limits, job activities, and other substances in the work place when designing engineering controls and selecting personal protective equipment. If engineering controls or work practices are not adequate to prevent exposure to harmful levels of this material, the personal protective equipment listed below is recommended. The user should read and understand all instructions and limitations supplied with the equipment since protection is usually provided for a limited time or under certain circumstances.
ENGINEERING CONTROLS:
Use in a well-ventilated area.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTEye/Face Protection: No special eye protection is normally required. Where splashing is possible, wear safety glasses with side shields as a good safety practice.Skin Protection: No special protective clothing is normally required. Where splashing is possible, select protective clothing depending on operations conducted, physical requirements and other substances in the workplace. Suggested materials for protective gloves include: 4H (PE/EVAL), Nitrile Rubber, Silver Shield, Viton.Respiratory Protection: No respiratory protection is normally required.If user operations generate an oil mist, determine if airborne concentrations are below the occupational exposure limit for mineral oil mist. If not, wear an approved respirator that provides adequate protection from the measured concentrations of this material. For air-purifying respirators use a particulate cartridge.
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Use a positive pressure air-supplying respirator in circumstances where air-purifying respirators may not provide adequate protection.
Occupational Exposure Limits:
Consult local authorities for appropriate values.
SECTION 9 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Attention: the data below are typical values and do not constitute a specification.
Color: Colorless to yellowPhysical State: LiquidOdor: Petroleum odorOdor Threshold: No data availablepH: Not Applicable
Vapor Pressure: <0.01 mmHg Maximum @ 37.8 °C (100 °F)Vapor Density (Air = 1): >1 MinimumInitial Boiling Point: 315°C (599°F) MinimumSolubility: Soluble in hydrocarbons; insoluble in waterFreezing Point: Not Applicable
Melting Point: No data availableSpecific Gravity: 0.86 – 0.88 @ 15.6°C (60.1°F) / 15.6°C (60.1°F)Density: 0.87 kg/l @ 15°C (59°F) (Typical)Viscosity: 35.2 mm2/s @ 40°C (104°F) MinimumEvaporation Rate: No data availableDecomposition temperature: No data availableOctanol/Water Partition Coefficient: No data available
FLAMMABLE PROPERTIES:Flammability (solid, gas): No Data Available
Flashpoint: (ASTM D92) 180 °C (356 °F) MinimumAutoignition: No data availableFlammability (Explosive) Limits (% by volume in air): Lower: Not Applicable Upper: Not Applicable
SECTION 10 STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
Reactivity: May react with strong acids or strong oxidizing agents, such as chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, etc.Chemical Stability: This material is considered stable under normal ambient and anticipated storage and handling conditions of temperature and pressure.
Incompatibility With Other Materials: Not applicableHazardous Decomposition Products: Hydrogen Sulfide (Elevated temperatures)
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Component
Agency
TWA
STEL
Ceiling
Notation
Highly refined mineral oil (C15 – C50)
OSHA Z-1
5 mg/m3



Highly refined mineral oil (C15 – C50)
ACGIH
5 mg/m3
10 mg/m3


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Hazardous Polymerization: Hazardous polymerization will not occur.SECTION 11 TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Information on toxicological effectsSerious Eye Damage/Irritation: The eye irritation hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.
Skin Corrosion/Irritation: The skin irritation hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.
Skin Sensitization: The skin sensitization hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.Acute Dermal Toxicity: The acute dermal toxicity hazard is based on evaluation of data for product
components.Acute Oral Toxicity: The acute oral toxicity hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.
Acute Inhalation Toxicity: The acute inhalation toxicity hazard is based on evaluation of data for product components.Acute Toxicity Estimate: Not Determined
Germ Cell Mutagenicity: The hazard evaluation is based on data for components or a similar material.
Carcinogenicity: The hazard evaluation is based on data for components or a similar material.
Reproductive Toxicity: The hazard evaluation is based on data for components or a similar material.
Specific Target Organ Toxicity – Single Exposure: The hazard evaluation is based on data for components or a similar material.
Specific Target Organ Toxicity – Repeated Exposure: The hazard evaluation is based on data for components or a similar material.
ADDITIONAL TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION:
This product contains petroleum base oils which may be refined by various processes including severe solvent extraction, severe hydrocracking, or severe hydrotreating. None of the oils requires a cancer warning under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200). These oils have not been listed in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Annual Report nor have they been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as; carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A), or possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
These oils have not been classified by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) as: confirmed human carcinogen (A1), suspected human carcinogen (A2), or confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (A3).
SECTION 12 ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
ECOTOXICITY
This material is not expected to be harmful to aquatic organisms.The product has not been tested. The statement has been derived from the properties of the individual
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components.
MOBILITY
No data available.
PERSISTENCE AND DEGRADABILITY
This material is not expected to be readily biodegradable. The biodegradability of this material is based on an evaluation of data for the components or a similar material.The product has not been tested. The statement has been derived from the properties of the individual components.
POTENTIAL TO BIOACCUMULATE
Bioconcentration Factor: No data available. Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient: No data available
SECTION 13 DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
Use material for its intended purpose or recycle if possible. Oil collection services are available for used oil recycling or disposal. Place contaminated materials in containers and dispose of in a manner consistent with applicable regulations. Contact your sales representative or local environmental or health authorities for approved disposal or recycling methods.
SECTION 14 TRANSPORT INFORMATION
The description shown may not apply to all shipping situations. Consult 49CFR, or appropriate Dangerous Goods Regulations, for additional description requirements (e.g., technical name) and mode-specific or quantity-specific shipping requirements.
DOT Shipping Description: NOT REGULATED AS A HAZARDOUS MATERIAL UNDER 49 CFRIMO/IMDG Shipping Description: NOT REGULATED AS DANGEROUS GOODS FOR TRANSPORT
UNDER THE IMDG CODE
ICAO/IATA Shipping Description: NOT REGULATED AS DANGEROUS GOODS FOR TRANSPORT UNDER ICAO
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC code:
Not applicable
SECTION 15 REGULATORY INFORMATION
EPCRA 311/312 CATEGORIES: 1. Immediate (Acute) Health Effects: NO 2. Delayed (Chronic) Health Effects: NO 3. Fire Hazard: NO 4. Sudden Release of Pressure Hazard: NO 5. Reactivity Hazard: NO
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REGULATORY LISTS SEARCHED:01-1=IARC Group 101-2A=IARC Group 2A01-2B=IARC Group 2B
02=NTP Carcinogen
03=EPCRA 313 04=CA Proposition 65 05=MA RTK06=NJ RTK07=PA RTK
No components of this material were found on the regulatory lists above.
CHEMICAL INVENTORIES:
All components comply with the following chemical inventory requirements: DSL (Canada), EINECS (European Union), IECSC (China), KECI (Korea), PICCS (Philippines), TSCA (United States).
One or more components does not comply with the following chemical inventory requirements: AICS (Australia), ENCS (Japan).
NEW JERSEY RTK CLASSIFICATION:
Under the New Jersey Right-to-Know Act L. 1983 Chapter 315 N.J.S.A. 34:5A-1 et. seq., the product is to be identified as follows: PETROLEUM OIL (Cutting oil)
SECTION 16 OTHER INFORMATION
NFPA RATINGS: Health: 0 Flammability: 1 Reactivity: 0
HMIS RATINGS: Health: 1 Flammability: 1 Reactivity: 0(0-Least, 1-Slight, 2-Moderate, 3-High, 4-Extreme, PPE:- Personal Protection Equipment Index recommendation, *- Chronic Effect Indicator). These values are obtained using the guidelines or published evaluations prepared by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) or the National Paint and Coating Association (for HMIS ratings).
LABEL RECOMMENDATION:
Label Category : METALWORKING FLUID 1 – MWF1
REVISION STATEMENT: This revision updates the following sections of this Safety Data Sheet: 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9,10,12,14,16Revision Date: APRIL 20, 2015
ABBREVIATIONS THAT MAY HAVE BEEN USED IN THIS DOCUMENT:
TLV – Threshold Limit Value
TWA – Time Weighted Average
STEL – Short-term Exposure Limit
PEL – Permissible Exposure Limit
GHS – Globally Harmonized System
CAS – Chemical Abstract Service Number
ACGIH – American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
IMO/IMDG – International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
API – American Petroleum Institute
SDS – Safety Data Sheet
HMIS – Hazardous Materials Information System
NFPA – National Fire Protection Association (USA)
DOT – Department of Transportation (USA)
NTP – National Toxicology Program (USA)
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IARC – International Agency for Research on Cancer
OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration
NCEL – New Chemical Exposure Limit
EPA – Environmental Protection Agency
SCBA – Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus

Prepared according to the 29 CFR 1910.1200 (2012) by Chevron Energy Technology Company, 6001 Bollinger Canyon Road San Ramon, CA 94583.

The above information is based on the data of which we are aware and is believed to be correct as of the date hereof. Since this information may be applied under conditions beyond our control and with which we may be unfamiliar and since data made available subsequent to the date hereof may suggest modifications of the information, we do not assume any responsibility for the results of its use. This information is furnished upon condition that the person receiving it shall make his own determination of the suitability of the material for his particular purpose.
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Laboratory Results for Unit VIII Research Paper
Employee
Position
Analyte
Sample Time
Sample Result
1
Machining
Mineral oil mist
480 minutes
1.1 mg/m3
2
Machining
Mineral oil mist
480 minutes
0.9 mg/m3
3
Welding Cleaning
Hexavalent chromium
360 minutes 120 minutes
8.5 μg/m30.5 μg/m3
4

Welding Cleaning
Hexavalent chromium

300 minutes 180 minutes
10.0 μg/m30.2 μg/m3
5

Paint Booth
Xylene MEK

480 minutes
24 ppm 60 ppm
6

Paint Booth/Cleaning Nozzles
1,3 butadiene

15 minutes
6.0 ppm
Noise Dosimetry Data

Employee

Position

Sample Time

Sample Result

1
Setting up parts for press Operating 2,000-ton press Clean-up
60 minutes 400 minutes 20 minutes
82.0 dBA 100 dBA 80.0 dBA

2
Setting up parts for press Operating 200-ton press Clean-up

30 minutes 430 minutes 20 minutes

80.0 dBA 89.0 dBA 80.0 dBA

3
Machining

480 minutes

85.5 dBA

4

Paint Booth

480 minutes

80.5 dBA

5
Shipping/Receiving/Forklift Driver

480 minutes

82.0 dBA
 
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